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Part 4

33. Uncle’s inheritance from his sister’s son

Sa’eed bin Mansoor mentioned in his Sunan: “Once a man recognized his sister, who had been taken captive in the pre-Islamic period. He found her with a son but he had not known who the father of the son was. He bought them both and set them free (for they were as slaves). The son (when he grew up) gained some wealth and then he died. The uncle came to ibn Mass’ood and told him the matter. Ibn Mass’ood asked him to go to Umar and then to come back to tell him what Umar would say. He went to Umar and told him his matter. Umar said to him: “He (the nephew) is not your relative and he is not included in the verdicts of inheritance.” Umar refused to let the man inherit his nephew. The uncle went back to ibn Mass’ood and told him what Umar had said. Ibn Mass’ood came with the man to Umar and said to him: “How did you give this fatwa to this man?” Umar said: “I have not found him as one of his blood relations nor has he been among those who have deserved inheritance; therefore I have not permitted him to inherit that young man. What do you think, O Abu Abdullah?” Ibn Mass’ood said: “I see him as a kin (for being his uncle) and a benefactor (for he has set his nephew free from being as a slave) and so I see that he has the right to inherit his nephew.” And then Umar annulled his first judgment and permitted the man to inherit his nephew.”

This event has been mentioned by al-Muttaqi al-Hindi in his Kanzol Ummal, vol. 6 p.8. This fatwa would have been true if the mother had died before her son.

34. Iddah of a pregnant woman

Al-Bayhaqi mentioned in his book Shu’ab al-Eeman that once a pregnant woman had asked Umar for a legal judgment saying to him: “I have given birth to my child after the death of my husband and before the end of my iddah.” He asked her to wait until the end of the longest one of the two terms of iddah.[1] Ubayy bin Ka’b objected to Umar at the presence of the woman and said to him that her iddah had ended since she had given birth to her child and he permitted her to get married before the end of the four months and ten days (of


[1] Four months and ten days.

 

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the iddah). Umar said nothing to the woman save this statement: “I am hearing what you are hearing”[1] and he gave up his fatwa. After that Umar agreed with Ubayy bin Ka’b and said: “If she had given birth to her child and her husband was still not buried yet, she could get married.”[2] The followers of the four Sunni sects have followed this principle until nowadays.

But we, the Shia, have found in the holy Qur'an two verses opposing each other concerning the iddah of a woman whose husband dies while she is pregnant; in the first verse Allah has said: “and (as for) the pregnant women, their prescribed time is that they lay down their burden. Qur'an, 65:4” and in the second one He has said: “And (as for) those of you who die and leave wives behind, they should keep themselves in waiting for four months and ten days. Qur'an, 65:4” A pregnant woman, whose husband dies, can get married after giving birth to her child if she follows the first verse even if she has not passed the period of iddah mentioned in the second verse but if she follows the second verse, she can get married only after passing the period mentioned in the verse even if she has not given birth to her child yet. In both suppositions she will objects to one of the verses and she cannot follow both of the verses at the same time unless she will wait until passing the longer of the two periods (either to pass four months and ten days or until giving birth to her baby) and then she has no way except to do that. This is what has been narrated from Imam Ali (s) and ibn Abbas.[3] The Shia have followed their imams in acting according to this opinion.

Note

The Muslims have disagreed on the beginning of the iddah of death,[4] which is four months and ten days. The Sunni believe that the iddah of death begins since the husband dies whether the wife knows of her husband’s death or she does not know because of his being far away


[1] Kanzol Ummal, vol. 5 p.166.
[2] Sunan of al-Bayhaqi, Sunan of ibn Abu Shayba and Kanzol Ummal, vol. 5 p.166.
[3] Mentioned by az-Zamakhshari in his Kashshaf when interpreting this verse (and (as for) the pregnant women, their prescribed time is that they lay down their burden). This is the opinion of Ahlul Bayt (s) and it is the most cautious opinion.
[4] When a wife’s husband dies.

 

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from her or because of any other reason.

As for the Shia, they believe that the iddah of death begins when a wife knows of her husband’s death even if the death has taken place some time ago. She has no right to get married until she passes the iddah, which is four months and ten days, since the moment she knows of her husband’s death. And then she can get married according to the clear verse after passing the iddah and after the mourning that a wife has to show after the death of her husband.

35. Marrying a missing husband’s wife

Ad-Dawaleebi said:[1] “…also Umar has judged according to his own opinion concerning the wife of a missing husband. He judged that a wife of a missing husband can get married after passing four years since the absence of the husband and after passing the iddah even if it had not been proved that her husband had died so that the wife would not remain in suspense forever. So was the opinion of Malik bin Anass which was unlike the opinion of the Hanafites and the Shafiites who believed that a wife had to wait until she would become certain of her husband’s death because he would be considered as alive until a certain evidence on his death would appear. But the opinion of Umar was worthy of being regarded because it protected the wife of a missing husband from certain harms and dangers. He permitted the wife of a missing husband to get married despite that this decision opposed the clear texts of the Sharia, on which the rest of jurisprudents depended. This was not but changing the verdicts according to the change of the conditions which must be regarded to avoid some harms. The Prophet (s) had said: “No harm (to be done against the others) and no reciprocal harm!” Allah had said: “and He has not laid upon you any hardship in religion. Qur'an, 22:78” In doing so, Umar did not annul the legal texts but he activated them in the light of the benefit and according to the different circumstances…”

As for the Shia, they have followed their infallible imams of Ahlul Bayt (s) in this matter. They have had fixed texts deciding according to the apparent principles. These texts say that when no information


[1] In his book Usool al-Fiqh, p.241.

 

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can be obtained about a missing husband, his wife, if there is someone spends on her, must wait until her husband comes or his death is proved or something like that. But if the wife has no one to spend on her, she can bring her case to the legal judge to decide. When she does so, the judge will begin to search for the missing husband for four years in the possible places, in which the husband can be found, otherwise he looks for him in everywhere since the moment when the wife offers her case before him. Then the judge divorces her or he orders her guardian (the one who is responsible for her) to decide. It is necessary that the guardian may decide first but if he refuses to divorce her, then the judge is to divorce her but after passing the period of researching or after the return of the messengers who go to look for the missing husband or the like. After that the wife spends the period of the iddah of death which is four months and ten days and then she can get married. If the missing husband comes back during her iddah, he will have the right to marry her again but if he comes back after the iddah, he will have no right to marry her whether he finds her married or not. This is the principle of the Shia on this matter according to their infallible imams (s).

36. Selling bondwomen

All the Sunni Muslims of the four sects have confirmed that the one, who had prohibited selling bondwomen, was Umar whereas it had been permissible at the time of the Prophet (s), the reign of Abu Bakr and some time of Umar’s rule. They have considered that as one of Umar’s virtues as they have considered Taraweeh Prayer and its likes.

But the scholars, who have looked for the truth of this matter, found in the true prophetic traditions that the Prophet (s) had prohibited selling bondwomen and so found that Umar had followed those traditions and acted according to them. He (Umar) said to his son Abdullah that he had heard the Prophet (s) saying: “A bondwoman is not to be sold, nor to be given as a gift, nor to be bequeathed and not to be considered as entailment. Her owner enjoys himself with her along his life. When he dies, she is to be set free.”


 

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Ibn Abbas narrated that the Prophet (s) had said: “Every bondwoman, who gives birth to a child from her master, becomes free after his death.”

These two traditions have been mentioned by Abu Ja’far Muhammad bin al-Hasan at-Toossi in his book al-Khilaf, vol.2. And according to the apparent meaning of the two traditions, it was clear that Umar had not prohibited selling bondwomen due to his own opinion, but he had acted according to the tradition of his son Abdullah and the tradition of ibn Abbas.

But Sheikh at-Toossi was forced by the traditions of the infallible imams of Ahlul Bayt (s) about this subject to interpret these two traditions in a way to make them submit to the doctrine of Ahlul Bayt (s). He said: “When a bondwoman gives birth to a child from her master while she is still in his possession, she will have the right to be free due to her bearing a child. It is not permissible to sell a pregnant bondwoman and when she gives birth to her child, she is still in the possession of her master and she is not permissible to be sold as long as her child is alive but when her child dies, she may be sold anyhow. If her master dies, she is made in the possession of her child and then she is set free due to that. If her master does not leave save her, the share of her child (in her) is set free and she becomes among the shares of the rest of the heirs. Such was the opinion of Ali (s), ibn az-Zubayr, ibn Abbas, Abu Sa’eed al-Khidri, ibn Mass’ood, al-Waleed bin Uqba, Suwayd bin Ghafla, Umar bin Abdul Aziz, ibn Seereen and Abdul Melik bin Ya’la. Dawood said: “It is permissible to dispose of her in any way” but he did not give any details. Abu Haneefa, his companions, ash-Shafi’iy and Malik said: “She is not permissible to be sold nor to be disposed of in any way but she is to be set free when her master dies.”

Sheikh at-Toossi added: “Our evidence on that is the consensus of the sect (the Shia) and their traditions. Also there is no disagreement on the possibility of being slept with by her possessor but if she becomes dispossessed, sleeping with her becomes not possible. The rule says that she is a slave and he, who pretends that she is freed after the death of her master, has to show the evidence on that. The tradition narrated by ibn Abbas that the Prophet (s) had said: “Every


 

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bondwoman, who gives birth to a child from her master, becomes free after his death” means that when her master dies and she becomes her child’s possession, then she is set free due to that. The tradition narrated by Abdullah bin Umar that the Prophet (s) had said: “A bondwoman is not to be sold, nor to be given as a gift, nor to be bequeathed and not to be considered as entailment. Her owner enjoys himself with her along his life. When he dies, she is to be set free” means that she cannot be sold as long as her child is alive. When her master dies, she is set free due to what we have said in the first tradition.”

37. Necessity of Tayammum[1] when there is no water

It suffices as evidence on this matter that Allah has said in the sura of al-Ma’ida: “O you who believe! when you rise up to prayer, wash your faces and your hands as far as the elbows, and wipe your heads and your feet to the ankles; and if you are under an obligation to perform a total ablution, then wash (yourselves) and if you are sick or on a journey, or one of you comes from the privy, or you have touched the women, and you cannot find water, betake yourselves to pure earth and wipe your faces and your hands therewith. Qur'an, 5:6” and He has said in the sura of an-Nissa’: “O you who believe! do not go near prayer when you are intoxicated until you know (well) what you say, nor when you are under an obligation to perform a bath, unless (you are) traveling on the road, until you have washed yourselves; and if you are sick, or on a journey, or one of you comes from the privy or you have touched the women, and you cannot find water, betake yourselves to pure earth, then wipe your faces and your hands; surely Allah is Pardoning, Forgiving. Qur'an, 4:43”

The true traditions on this matter are many and one confirming the other and all the umma has agreed unanimously on that except Umar, the only one who had contradicted the consensus. The famous traditions narrated from him showed that he had believed that one, who had no water, had not to offer the prayer until he would find


[1] Tayammum is performing ritual ablution, before offering prayers and other obligations, with earth when there is no water.

 

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water.[1]

Al-Bukhari and Muslim mentioned in their Sahihs a tradition narrated by Sa’eed bin Abdurrahman bin Abzi from his father that once a man had come to Umar and said to him: “I have been in ritual impurity and I could not find water to perform the ritual ablution.” Umar said to him: “Do not offer the prayer!” Ammar bin Yassir was present then. Ammar said: “O Ameerul Mo’mineen, have you not remembered once when you and I were in a brigade (during a war) and we became impure and could not find water (to perform ablution). You did not offer the prayer but I rubbed myself with earth and offered the prayer. Then the Prophet (s) said: “It would have sufficed you to hit the earth with your hands and then you blow and rub your face and your two hands.” Umar said: “O Ammar, fear Allah!” Ammar said: “If I do not narrate it!!”[2] Umar said: “We will see how to deal with you!”

It has been said that ibn Mass’ood had adopted the opinion of Umar in this matter. Al-Bukhari, and others, mentioned a tradition that Shaqeeq bin Salama had said: “Once I was with Abdullah bin Mass’ood and Abu Musa al-Ash’ari. Abu Musa asked Abdullah bin Mass’ood: “O Abu Abdurrahman, if one becomes impure and he does not find water, what will he do then?” Abdullah ibn Mass’ood said: “He does not offer the prayer until he finds water.” Abu Musa said: “Then how about the saying of Ammar when the Prophet (s) has said to him: “It would have sufficed you to…”?” Ibn Mass’ood said: “Do you not see that Ammar has not been satisfied with that?” Abu Musa said: “Let us put the saying of Ammar aside! What do you do with this verse…” he recited to him the verse of Tayammum mentioned in the sura of al-Ma’ida. Abdullah did not know what to say.”[3]

I say: Abdullah bin Mass’ood was cautious in his speech with Abu Musa because he feared both Umar and Abu Musa. There is no doubt in that. Allah is more aware!


[1] Irshad as-Sari fee Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari by al-Qastalani, vol.2 p.131.
[2] Ammar said that out of his fear from Umar because the saying of Umar “We will see how to deal with you” was as a threat to Ammar.
[3] Sahih of al-Bukhari, vol.1 p.50.

 

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38. Two supererogatory Rak’as after Asr prayer

Muslim mentioned in his Sahih[1] a tradition narrated by Urwa bin az-Zubayr from his father that Aa’isha (the Prophet’s wife) had said: “The Prophet (s) had never ignored the two rak’as (which he had been used to offer) after Asr prayer in my house at all.”

He also mentioned a tradition narrated by Abdurrahman bin al-Aswad from his father that Aa’isha had said: “There were two prayers that the messenger of Allah (s) had never ignored, when being in my house, neither secretly nor openly; two rak’as before Fajr Prayer and two rak’as after Asr Prayer.”

He mentioned another tradition that al-Aswad and Masrooq had said: “We witness that Aa’isha has said: “Whenever the messenger of Allah (s) was in my house, he offered the two rak’as after Asr prayer.”

But Umar bin al-Khattab prohibited them (these two rak’as) and punished whoever offered them.

Malik mentioned in his Muwatta’[2] a tradition narrated by ibn Shihab from as-Sa’ib bin Yazeed who said that he had seen Umar bin al-Khattab beating al-Mukandar[3] because he had offered two rak’as after Asr prayer.

Abdurrazaq mentioned that Zayd bin Khalid had said that once the caliph Umar had seen him offering two rak’as after Asr prayer and beaten him for that…then Umar said: “O Zayd, unless I fear that people may take it (the prayer after Asr prayer) as a (ladder) to prayer until the night, I will not punish for it.”

He also mentioned a tradition like that narrated by Tameem ad-Dariy but he said in it “…Umar said: “…but I fear that some people may come after you that they offer prayers since the afternoon until


[1] vol.1 p.309.
[2] At the end of the chapter (prohibiting praying (two rak’as) before Fajr prayer and after Asr prayer.
[3] Ibn Muhammad bin al-Mukandar al-Qarashi at-Taymi al-Madani, as in Sharh al-Muwatta’ by az-Zarqani.

 

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the sunset that they may offer prayers during the time,[1] at which the Prophet (s) had prohibited from offering prayers.”

39. Displacing Abraham’s temple

The temple of Prophet Abraham (s) is the rock by which the pilgrims offer prayer according to the saying of Allah: “Take as your place of worship the place where Abraham stood (to pray). Qur'an, 2:125”

Abraham and Ishmael (s), when building the House, stood on this rock to hand over rocks and clay. The rock was stuck to the Kaaba but the Arabs after Prophet Abraham (s) moved it to its place nowadays. When Allah has sent Muhammad (s) as the prophet and granted him with means of power, he stuck the rock to the Kaaba again as it had been at the time of his fathers Abraham and Ishmael. When Umar became the caliph, he displaced it as it is nowadays. At the time of the Prophet (s) and the time of Abu Bakr the rock was stuck to the Kaaba.[2]

In the seventeenth year of hijra Umar enlarged the mosque by adding to it some of the companions’ houses around it. The companions had refused to sell their houses but Umar tore down their houses and put their prices in the treasury until they, later on, took their monies.[3]


[1] He meant the time of sunset that the Prophet (s) had forbidden from offering prayers in. The true prophetic traditions about this matter have been mentioned in the books of Hadith. Malik in his Muwatta’ mentioned a tradition from ibn Umar that the Prophet (s) had said: “Do not offer prayers at the sunshine nor at the sunset.” The wisdom behind this was that the umma shouls not imitate the Magi in their worshipping the sun when shining and when setting. But the caliph Umar became cautious to prevent the Muslims from offering prayers after Asr prayer at all and not only the time of the sunset. And so he contradicted the Sharia even if he intended to do good. Would that he had been satisfied with prohibiting offering this prayer without beating the servants of Allah while offering their prayers before their Lord!
[2] Tabaqat of ibn Sa’d, vol.3 p.204, Tareekh al-Khulafa’ of as-Sayooti, p.53, Sharh Nahjol Balagha of ibn Abul Hadeed, vol.3 p.113, Kitab al-Haywan of ad-Dimyari, Tareekh Umar by Abul Faraj al-Jawzi p.60.
[3] Mentioned by ibn al-Atheer in Al-Kamil, the events of the 17th year of hijra and by other historians.

 

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40. Weeping for the dead

The sorrow of man for losing his lovers and his crying for them are parts of the sentiment of human beings besides that they are among the requirements of mercy if they are not accompanied with bad sayings and doings.

The Prophet (s) has said: “Whatever comes out of the heart and the eye is from Allah and mercy and whatever comes out of the hand and the tongue is from the Satan.”[1]

The Muslims have done so everywhere and always without having any evidence to prohibit it. The necessity required it (sorrowfulness or crying) to be permissible.

In fact the Prophet (s) himself has cried in many occasions and he has approved the others when crying in many occasions and admired it (crying) in other occasions. In fact he might have invited to it.

The Prophet (s) has cried for his uncle Hamza, the lion of Allah and the lion of His messenger. Ibn Abdul Birr and other historians said “When the Prophet (s) saw Hamza killed, he cried and when he saw him mutilated, he sobbed.”[2]

Al-Waqidy said: “The Prophet (s) often cried when Safiyya[3] cried and he sobbed when she sobbed.” He added: “Fatima began crying and the messenger of Allah (s) began crying too for her crying.”[4]

Anass bin Malik said: “When the army of the Muslims was in Mu’ta, Zayd took the banner but he was injured. Then Ja’far took the banner and he was injured too. Then Abdullah bin Rawaha took the banner and he was injured too. The Prophet’s eyes were shedding tears…”[5]

Ibn Abdul Birr said in his al-Istee’ab: “The Prophet (s) cried for Ja’far and Zayd and he said: “They are my brothers, friends and


[1] A tradition narrated by ibn Abbas and mentioned by Ahmad in his Musnad, vol.1 p.335.
[2] Al-Istee’ab by ibn Abdul Birr, biography of Hamza bin Abdul Muttalib.
[3] She was the Prophet’s aunt.
[4] Sharh Nahjol Balagha, vol. 3 p.387.
[5] Sahih of al-Bukhari, vol.1 p.148, vol.3 p.39.

 

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talkers.”

Anass said: “…then we came to him (to the Prophet (s)) while Ibraheem (the Prophet’s son) was dying. The Prophet’s eyes began shedding tears. Abdurrahman bin Ouff said to him: “Do you cry while you are the messenger of Allah?!” The Prophet (s) said: “O ibn Ouff, it is mercy!” Then he cried again and said: “The eye sheds tears and the heart becomes sad but we do not say what discontents our Lord. O Ibraheem, we are sad for your leave!”[1]

Ussama bin Zayd said: “The daughter of the Prophet (s) sent for him that one of her sons had died. The Prophet (s) went with Sa’d bin Ubada, Ma’ath bin Jabal, Ubayy bin Ka’b and Zayd bin Thabit. The Prophet (s) lifted the boy while his breath was still clattering. The Prophet’s eyes began shedding tears. Sa’d said: “O messenger of Allah, what is this?” The Prophet (s) said: “It is mercy that Allah has put in the hearts of His people. Allah has mercy on the merciful ones of His people…”[2]

Abdullah bin Umar said: “One day Sa’d bin Ubada became ill. The Prophet (s) came to visit him with Abdurrahman bin Ouff, Sa’d bin Abu Waqqas and Abdullah bin Mass’ood. He found him in the middle of his relatives. The Prophet (s) asked: “Is he dead?” They said: “No, O messenger of Allah.” The Prophet (s) began crying. When the people saw the Prophet (s) crying, they began crying too. Then the Prophet (s) said: “Allah does not punish for the tears of the eyes nor for the sadness of the heart but He punishes and has mercy (on people) for this.” He pointed to his tongue.”[3]

Ibn Abdul Birr said in al-Istee’ab: “When the Prophet (s) was informed that Ja’far had been martyred, he went to his wife (Ja’far’s wife) Asma’ bint Umays and consoled her. Then Fatima (s) (the Prophet’s daughter) came in crying and saying: “O uncle!” The Prophet (s) said: “Let the criers cry for one like Ja’far!”[4]


[1] Sahih of al-Bukhari, vol.1 p.154.
[2] Sahih of al-Bukhari, vol.1 p.152, Sahih of Muslim, vol.1 chap. Crying for the dead.
[3] Sahih of al-Bukhari, vol.1 p.155, Sahih of Muslim, vol.1 p.341.
[4] In this tradition the Prophet (s) has approved crying for the dead and ordered of it. In fact the crying of Fatima (s) only could be enough evidence on the subject.

 

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The historians like ibn Jareer, Ibnul Atheer, ibn Katheer and ibn Abd Rabbih mentioned the tradition of ibn Umar that Ahmad bin Hanbal had mentioned in his Musnad.[1] Ibn Umar narrated: “When the Prophet (s) (and his army) had come back from the battle of Uhud, the women of the Ansar began crying for their killed husbands. The Prophet (s) said: “But Hamza has no one crying for him!” Then the Prophet (s) went to bed. When he waked up, he heard the women crying. He said: “Then they are crying for Hamza today.”

Ibn Abdul Birr in al-Istee’ab quoted from al-Waqidy his saying: “The women of the Ansar, after this saying of the Prophet (s) “But Hamza has no one crying for him”, did not cry for a dead one of the Ansar unless they cried for Hamza first.”

Crying for Hamza at the time of the Prophet (s), the time of the companions and the time of the companions’ successors was clear evidence on the permissibility of the crying for one like Hamza even if it was a long time since he had died.

The saying of the Prophet (s) “But Hamza has no one crying for him” and his saying “Let the criers cry for one like Ja’far” proved that crying for (good) dead people were desirable.

In spite of all that, Umar bin al-Khattab had prohibited crying for a dead man whatever great he was. In fact he beat with a stick, threw with stones and threw soil on whoever cried for the dead. He did that since the time of the Prophet (s) and he kept on that until the end of his life.[2]

Ahmad bin Hanbal mentioned in his Musnad a tradition narrated by ibn Abbas about the death of Ruqayya, the Prophet’s daughter, and the crying of women for her and then he said: “…Umar began beating the women with his whip. The Prophet (s) said to him: “Let them cry!” The Prophet (s) sat by the tomb and Fatima (s) was crying beside him. The Prophet (s) began wiping Fatima’s eyes with his dress compassionately.”[3]


[1] Vol.2 p.40.
[2] Al-Bukhari's Sahih, vol. 1 p.255.
[3] vol.1 p.335.

 

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Ahmad also mentioned in his Musnad[1] a tradition narrated by Abu Hurayra that once a procession of funerals passed by the Prophet (s). Among them there were some women crying. Umar scolded them. The Prophet (s) said: “Let them cry. The heart is sad and the eye is shedding tears.”[2]

Aa’isha and Umar were in disagreement on this matter. Umar and his son Abdullah narrated that the Prophet (s) had said: “A dead is tortured because of the crying of his relatives for him\her.” In another tradition: “…because of some of his relatives’ crying” in a third saying “because of the crying of (people of) the quarter” in a fourth one “he is tortured in his grave whenever it is cried for him” in a fifth one “whoever is cried for, is tortured”. All these sayings are untrue due to reason and tradition.

An-Nawawi said, when mentioning these sayings: “All these narrations have been narrated by Umar and his son Abdullah. Aa’isha denied that and accused them of being forgetting or mistaken. She refuted their sayings by reciting the saying of Allah: (no bearer of burden shall bear the burden of another).

Ibn Abbas and all of the infallible imams of Ahlul Bayt (s) have denied these traditions and confirmed that the narrators were mistaken. Aa’isha and Umar were still in disagreement about this matter until Aa’isha cried for her father when he died. Because of that there were some things happened between them. At-Tabari mentioned in his Tareekh al-Khulafa’, vol.4 when talking about the events of the thirteenth year of hijra, that Sa’eed bin al-Musayyab had said: “When Abu Bakr died, Aa’isha (with her fellow women) began crying for him. Then Umar came to her house and forbade her and the other women from crying for Abu Bakr. They refused to refrain from crying. Umar said to Hisham bin al-Waleed: “Go inside the house and bring me the daughter of ibn Abu Quhafa (Aa’isha the daughter of Abu Bakr).” Aa’isha said to Hisham when she heard the


[1] vol.2 p.333.
[2] One day during his caliphate, Umar heard some women crying inside one of the houses. He came into the house and began beating the crying women until their veils fell down of their heads. Then he said to his servant: “Beat the weeping women…beat them. They have no sanctity…” Refer to Sharh Nahjol Balagha, vol.3 p.111.

 

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saying of Umar: “I forbid you from entering my house.” Umar said to Hisham: “Enter the house! I have permitted you.” Hisham went in and brought Umm Farwa, Abu Bakr’s sister, to Umar. Umar began beating Umm farwa with his stick. When the crying women heard that, they separated here and there.”

Here we attract the attention of the men of understanding to search about the reason that has led Fatima (s) to be away from the country when she wanted to cry for her father (s). She went, with her two sons and her fellow women, to al-Baqee’ (graveyard). They cried for the Prophet (s) under the shadow of a tree there and when this tree was cut, Imam Ali (s) built her a house in al-Baqee’ to weep for her father in it. It was called “the house of sorrows”. This house had been visited by the different generations of this umma like the other sacred places. This house was demolished recently by the order of King Abdul Aziz bin Sa’ood al-Jundi when he prevailed over Hijaz and he destroyed the sacred places in al-Baqee’ according to his Wahabite belief. It was in the year 1344 A.H. In the year 1339 we have got the honor of visiting this house (the house of sorrows) when Allah has granted us with the favor of offering the hajj and visiting the Prophet (s) and the places of his pure family in al-Baqee’.

41. The Prophet (s) confirms truthfulness of Hatib

Al-Bukhari mentioned in his Sahih a tradition narrated by Abu Owana that Hussayn had said: “Once Abu Abdurrahman and Habban bin Atiyya disputed. Abu Abdurrahman said to Habban: “I knew what had encouraged your friend-he meant Ali-to shed the bloods.” Habban said: “Woe unto you! What was that?” Abu Abdurrahman said: “Something I have heard him saying it.” Habban said: “What is it?” Abu Abdurrahman said: “Ali said: “One day the Prophet (s) sent for us; me, az-Zubayr and Abu Marthad, and all of us were knights, and he said to us: “You go to Rawdhat Haj.[1] There is a woman there having a letter from Hatib bin Abu Balta’a to the polytheists. Bring me the letter.” We set out on our horses until we found the woman where the Prophet (s) had said to us that she was on a camel. Hatib had written a letter to the people of Mecca informing them that the


[1] It may be Rawdat Khakh, which is a place between Mecca and Medina.

 

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Prophet (s) would attack them. We asked the woman: “Where is the book which you have?” She said: “I do not have any book.” We made her camel kneel down and we searched her baggage but we did not find any book. My two companions said: “We do not think that she has a book.” I (Ali) said: “We know well that the Prophet (s) has not told a lie.” Then I swore: “By Him, Who is sworn by, either you take out the book or I shall disrobe you.”[1] She took the letter out of her garment.” They brought the letter to the Prophet (s). Umar said: “O messenger of Allah, he (Hatib) has betrayed Allah, His messenger and the believers. Let me behead him!” The Prophet (s) said to Hatib: “O Hatib, what made you do that?” Hatib said: “O messenger of Allah, I still believe in Allah and His messenger but I wanted to do the people (the polytheists) a favor so that they would not harm my family and properties. Every one of your companions there has someone of his tribe to defend his family and properties.” The Prophet (s) said to his companions: “He is right. Do not say to him save good.” Umar said again: “O messenger of Allah, he has betrayed Allah, His messenger and the believers. Let me behead him!”[2]

It was necessary for Umar no to say that after the Prophet (s) had told them that Hatib was right and after he had ordered them not to harm him.

42. The Prophet’s book to his emirs

Malik bin Anass and al-Bazzaz mentioned[3] that the Prophet (s) had sent books to his emirs asking them that when they wanted to send him their mails they should make their letters and books with fine titles and in fine forms. When Umar knew that, he got up saying: “I do not know! Shall I say or shall I keep silent?” The Prophet (s) said to him: “O Umar, say!” Umar said to the Prophet (s): “You have forbidden us from being pessimistic but how do you become pessimistic now?” The Prophet (s) said: “I am not pessimistic but I have chosen the best.”


[1] Imam Ali (s) threatened to disrobe her of her outer garment in which the book was.
[2] Al-Bukhari's Sahih, vol. 4. chap. Forgiving the apostatized.
[3] As in Hayat al-Haywan by ad-Dimyari, chap. “luqha” she-camel.

 

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43. Dividing the charities

Ahmad bin Hanbal mentioned in his Musnad[1] that Salman bin Rabee’a had heard Umar saying: “One day the Prophet (s) distributed charities among some people. I said to him: “O messenger of Allah, there are other people who are more deserving than these people; they are the people of the Suffa.”[2] The Prophet (s) said: “You ask me greedily (and at the same time) you intend to make me miser while I am not.”

But the division has been done as Allah and His messenger willed. Abu Musa said that Umar had asked the Prophet (s) about some things that the Prophet (s) disliked until he became angry. Umar saw the anger in the Prophet’s face.[3]

44. The Prophet (s) orders Umar to hide his faith

Muhyiddeen ibn al-Arabi mentioned that the Prophet (s) had said to Umar bin al-Khattab, when he had become a Muslim: “Keep your faith secret.” But Umar refused to do that and he announced his being a Muslim openly.[4]

Necessity then required the Muslims to conceal their faith because the mission would not succeed except with concealment but the (valor) of Umar led him to announce his being a Muslim even if he would contradict the order of the Prophet (s)!

45. Fasting at the beginning of Islam

In Ramadan, at the beginning of Islam, a fasting Muslim could eat, drink, sleep with his wife and do the other permissible things since the sunset until he offered Isha’ prayer or he slept. If he offered Isha’ prayer or he slept, it would be impermissible for him to eat, to drink, to sleep with his wife or to do other things that were not permissible


[1] Vol.1 p.20.
[2] Suffa means shed, in which the neediest people lived at that time. It was erected beside the mosque of the Prophet (s).
[3] Al-Bukhari's Sahih, vol. 1 p.19.
[4] Tareekh Falsafatul Islam (history of the philosophy of Islam) by Muhammad Lutfi, p.301.

 

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for a fasting one until the next night. But one night after Isha’ prayer Umar slept with his wife. He regretted what he had done. He came to the Prophet (s) and said to him: “O messenger of Allah, I apologize to Allah and to you my mistaken soul…” He told the Prophet (s) of what he had done. Then some men got up and confessed that they often did as Umar had done after Isha’ prayer. Then Allah revealed to the Prophet (s) this verse: “It is made lawful to you to go into your wives on the night of the fast; they are an apparel for you and you are an apparel for them; Allah knew that you acted unfaithfully to yourselves, so He has turned to you (mercifully) and removed from you (this burden); so now be in contact with them and seek what Allah has ordained for you, and eat and drink until the whiteness of the day becomes distinct from the blackness of the night at dawn, then complete the fast till night. Qur'an, 2:187” The verse showed clearly that they disobeyed Allah more than one time but Allah had forgiven them and accepted their repentance and He permitted them to practice what had been impermissible for them as mercy from Him.

46. Prohibiting wine

Allah has revealed three verses about wine; the first was: “They ask you about intoxicants and games of chance. Say: In both of them there is a great sin and means of profit for men, and their sin is greater than their profit. Qur'an, 2:219”

After this verse some of the Muslims drank wine and others refrained from drinking it until a man offered his prayer while he was drunk and so he mistook in reciting the verses in the prayer. Then Allah revealed: “O you who believe! do not go near prayer when you are intoxicated until you know (well) what you say. Qur'an, 4:43” After the revelation of this verse some Muslims drank wine and some others gave it up. Some historians mentioned that one day Umar drank wine and then he took a jawbone of a camel and struck Abdurrahman bin Ouff on the head. Then he sat weeping for the killed people of the battle of Badr and reciting some poetry of al-Aswad bin Ya’fur:

“Is he unable to keep death away from me,

or resurrect me when my bones become destroyed?


 

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Is there someone who tells the Beneficent

that I have given up the month of fast?

Say to Allah to prevent me my drink

And say to Allah to prevent me my food.”

The Prophet (s) was informed of that and he became very angry. He went out dragging his garment and he hit Umar with something he had in his hand. Umar said: “May Allah save me from His wrath and from the wrath of His messenger!” Then Allah revealed: “The Shaitan only desires to cause enmity and hatred to spring in your midst by means of intoxicants and games of chance, and to keep you off from the remembrance of Allah and from prayer. Will you then desist. Qur'an, 5:91” Umar said: “We desist! We desist!”[1]

47. The Prophet (s) forbids from killing al-Abbas and others[2]

During the battle of Badr the Prophet (s) said to his companions: “I know that some men of Bani Hashim have been forced to go to the battle (to fight against the Muslims) unwillingly. We have no need to fight them. When you meet any one of them (the Hashemites), you are not to kill him and if any one of you meets Abul Bukhturi bin


[1] Al-Mustatraf fee Kulli Fanin Mustadhraf by Shihabuddeen al-Absheehi, vol.3 chap.74. It has also been quoted by some scholars from Rabee’ul Abrar by az-Zamakhshari. Al-Fakhr ar-Razi has referred to some of this event in his Tafsee al-Kabeer, vol.3 p.446 when interpreting the Qur’anic verse (The Shaitan only desires to cause enmity and hatred to spring in your midst by means of intoxicants and games of chance). He said: “It has been narrated that when Allah has revealed (O you who believe! do not go near prayer when you are intoxicated), Umar said: “O Allah, declare to us a full declaration about wine! And when this verse (The Shaitan only desires to cause enmity and hatred to spring in your midst by means of intoxicants and games of chance, and to keep you off from the remembrance of Allah and from prayer. Will you then desist) was revealed, Umar said: “O our Lord, we desist!”
[2] The Prophet (s) has forbidden from killing al-Abbas (the Prophet’s uncle). It has been mentionen in many true traditions and the books of Hadith are full of such traditions. All the historians, who have recorded the history of the battle of Badr, have mentioned this and mentioned that the Prophet (s) had forbidden from killing any one of the Hashemites.

 

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Hisham bin al-Harith bin Asad, he has not to kill him[1] and if any of you meets al-Abbas bin Abdul Muttalib (the Prophet’s uncle) he has not to kill him because he has gone to war unwillingly.”

The Prophet (s) has forbidden his companions from killing any one of the Hashemites and then he has forbidden them from killing his uncle al-Abbas especially to confirm and to stress on that al-Abbas were not to be killed. When al-Abbas had been captured as prisoner, the Prophet (s) had spent that night sleeplessly. His companions asked him: “O messenger of Allah, why could you not sleep?” He said: “I heard my uncle writhing in his ties and I could not sleep.” They went and set al-Abbas free of his ties and then the Prophet (s) could sleep.[2]

Yahya bin Katheer said: “On the day (the battle) of Badr the Muslims have captured seventy men of the polytheists, among whom was al-Abbas, the Prophet’s uncle. Umar bin al-Khattab was responsible for tying him. Al-Abbas said: “O Umar, by Allah, what leads you to tighten my ties is because of my slapping you for the sake of the messenger of Allah.”

The Prophet (s) heard the moaning of al-Abbas and he could not


[1] Al-Bidayeh wen-Nihayeh by ibn Katheer, vol.3 p.284 and other books of history like Seera of ibn Isshaq. The Prophet (s) has forbidden his companions from killing Abul Bukhturi because he was one of those who had broken the bond (as-Saheefa) of the blockade against the Hashimites and he was among those who had not harmed the Prophet (s) or showed him what he disliked. The Prophet (s) intended to keep him alive so that Allah might guide him to the right path one day. In the thick of the battle al-Mujthir bin Ziyad al-Balawi met Abul Bukhturi and said to him: “The messenger of Allah (s) has forbidden us from killing you.” Abul Bukhturi had a companion with him. He was Junada bin Maleeha from bani Layth who had come with him from Mecca. Abul Bukhturi said to al-Mujthir: “Will my friend not be killed too?” Al-Mujthir said: “No by Allah, we will not leave your friend. The messenger of Allah has ordered us about you alone.” Abul Bukhturi said: “Then I will die with him. I do not let the women of Quraysh in Mecca say that he has left his friend alone for the sake of his own life.” They fought each other until al-Mujthir killed him. Then al-Mujthir came to the Prophet (s) and said to him: “I swear by Him, Who has sent you with the truth! I have insisted on him to be as prisoner to bring him to you but he refused except to fight me. We fought each other until I killed him.”
[2] It has been mentioned by the historians who have recorded the events of the battle of Badr.

 

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sleep. The companions asked: “O messenger of Allah, what prevents you from sleeping?” He said: “How can I sleep while I hear the moaning of my uncle?” Then the Ansar set him free…”[1]

All the Prophet’s companions of the Ansar, the Muhajireen and others knew well what high position Abul Fadhl al-Abbas had near the Prophet (s). When the Prophet (s) heard the word of Abu Huthayfa bin Utba bin Rabee’a bin Abd Shams, who fought with the Prophet (s) in Badr, when he said: “Do we kill our fathers and brothers and we leave al-Abbas free? By Allah, if I meet him, I will strike him with the sword” he became very angry for that and then he said to Umar provoking his zeal: “O Abu Hafs, is it right that the face of the Prophet’s uncle is struck with the sword?” Umar said: “By Allah, it was the first day that the Prophet (s) had called me as Abu Hafs.”[2]

The war came to an end. The Prophet (s) gained victory and his army returned with honor. Seventy of the tyrants were killed and other seventy of them were captured. The prisoners were brought dragging their ties. Abu Hafs (Umar) began inciting to kill them with severe words. He said: “O messenger of Allah, they have (considered you as a liar) disbelieved in you, exiled you and fought you. Would you permit me to kill so-and-so (one of his relatives) and permit Ali to kill his brother Aqeel and permit Hamza to kill his brother al-Abbas?”

Glory be to Allah! Al-Abbas and Aqeel were neither among those who had considered the Prophet (s) as a liar nor among those who had exiled him nor among those who had harmed him! They were with him in the Shi’b during the long period of the blockade against the Hashimites suffering distresses with him. They had been taken to the battle unwillingly as the Prophet (s) himself had witnessed and the Prophet (s) had forbidden his companions from killing them under the heat of the war so how would they be killed while they were captives? As the withering of al-Abbas had worried the Prophet (s) and prevented him from sleeping, then how would he become if his


[1] Kanzol Ummal, vol. 5 p.272, also mentioned by ibn Asakir.
[2] Al-Bidayeh wen-Nihayeh, vol.3 p.285.

 

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uncle was killed for no reason? Al-Abbas had been a Muslim before that but he had concealed his faith for a wisdom behind which there was contentment to Allah and His messenger and goodness to him and to the umma.[1]

48. Taking ransom from the prisoners of Badr


[1] Ahmad Zayni Dahlan, the Mufti of the Shafiites, said in his book as-Seera an-Nabawiyya, vol.1 p.504 when mentioning al-Abbas during the battle of Badr: “Al-Abbas, according to what the scholars and historians had said, had become a Muslim a long time ago but he had concealed his faith. He became delighted when the Muslims obtained victory. The Prophet (s) often told him of his secrets when he was in Mecca and he always accompanied the Prophet (s) when going to invite the different tribes to believe in Islam. Al-Abbas always encouraged the tribes to support the Prophet (s). He had attended the homage of al-Aqaba which was between the Prophet (s) and the Ansar. All that showed that he was a Muslim. The Prophet (s) had ordered him to stay in Mecca in order to write to him the secrets and news of Quraysh. When Quraysh wanted to go to the war in Badr and called upon people to fight (against the Muslims) he could not but to go with them; therefore the Prophet (s) had said on the day of Badr: “He, who meets al-Abbas, has not to kill him because he has gone to the war unwillingly.” This did not contradict the Prophet’s saying when he asked him for redemption: “Apparently you were against us” because his being apparently against them did not contradict his being with them in his innerness. The Prophet (s) treated him according to his apparent condition to please the hearts of the companions where he had treated their fathers, sons and tribes in the same way. Al-Abbas had properties and monies near the people of Quraysh and he feared that if he had announced his being a Muslim, his properties would have been lost among them. He had concealed his faith according to the order of the Prophet (s). The Prophet (s) himself had not told his companions about the faith of his uncle out of his kindness to his uncle and because he had feared that his uncle’s monies would have been lost. The Prophet (s) had had another aim in concealing his uncle’s faith. He wanted him to be as a spy to bring him the news of Quraysh. But then when Islam prevailed over Quraysh on the day of conquering Mecca, al-Abbas declared his faith openly. He had not declared his faith until the conquest of Mecca. Al-Abbas often asked the Prophet (s) to permit him to immigrate to Medina to be with the Prophet (s) but the Prophet (s) wrote to him: “Your stay in Mecca is better to you.” In another tradition the Prophet (s) had written to him: “O uncle, stay in the place where you are. Allah will complete the hijra (emigration) with you as he has completed prophethood.” And it was so because al-Abbas was the last emigrant for he had met the Prophet (s) in al-Abwa’ where he had not known that the Prophet (s) had gone to conquer Mecca and then he went back with him…”Al-Halabi in his Seera has had clearer speech about the preceding faith of al-Abbas and his wife Umm al-Fadhl, who had immigrated to the Prophet (s) too early. Let you refer to that and to the sayings of the other scholars about this subject.

 

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When Allah has granted His servant and messenger with victory on the day of distinction, the day on which the two parties met; the prisoners have been brought to the Prophet (s). It seemed then that he would keep them alive so that Allah might guide them to His religion later on; and it happened by the grace of Allah!

But the Prophet (s) decided, after forgiving them, to take ransom from them in order to weaken them so that they would not be able to stand against him again and that he would be stronger than them with that ransom. This was the best for the two parties and it was the loyalty to Allah and to His people undoubtedly; “Nor does he speak out of desire. It is naught but revelation that is revealed.” Though the Prophet (s) was merciful in nature and wherever he found a way he would not fail to show his mercy.

Umar thought that all of the prisoners should be killed as a reward because they had considered the Prophet (s) as a liar, harmed him, exiled him and fought him. Umar was too determined to do away with them and that they should be killed by their Muslim relatives.

But the Prophet (s) had exemplified the word of Allah: “I follow naught but what is revealed to me; surely I fear, if I disobey my Lord, the punishment of a mighty day. Qur'an, 10:15”

The Prophet (s) forgave them and set them free after taking the ransom. After that those, who were ignorant of his infallibility and wisdom, became as if they “cannot arise except as one, whom the Satan has prostrated by (his) touch, does rise. That is because they say” that the Prophet (s), when keeping them (the prisoners) and taking ransom from them, acted according to his own ijtihad (opinion)[1] whereas the right thing for him was to kill them and to get rid of their evil. They depended on false and fabricated traditions that neither reason nor custom would accept.

Among those false traditions was this one: “After the Prophet (s) had taken the ransom from the prisoners of Quraysh (and set them free), Umar came to him and found him and Abu Bakr crying. Umar said to them: “What are you crying for?” The Prophet (s) said: “We are about to be afflicted with a great torment because we have


[1] Ad-Dahlani in his as-Seera an-Nabawiyya, vol.1 p.512.

 

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contradicted (Umar) ibn al-Khattab. If torment comes down, no one will be safe from it except ibn al-Khattab.”[1] (they said) then Allah revealed: “It is not fit for a prophet that he should take captives unless he has fought and triumphed in the land; you desire the frail goods of this world, while Allah desires (for you) the hereafter; and Allah is Mighty, Wise. Were it not for an ordinance from Allah that had already gone forth, surely there would have befallen you a great chastisement for what you had taken to. Qur'an, 8:67-68”

“And they did not assign to Allah the attributes due to Him” when they went far in deviation and ascribed ijtihad to the Prophet (s) whereas Allah said: “It is naught but revelation that is revealed.” They were too ignorant when they thought that the Prophet (s) had been mistaken and they went astray to the full when they preferred the saying of other than the Prophet (s). They became confused with this verse and became blind before its intents. They said that it had been revealed to scold the Prophet (s) and his companions when they-as the fool had pretended-preferred the pleasures of this life to the afterlife by keeping the prisoners alive and taking ransom from them before they “had fought and triumphed in the land.” They pretended that no one innocent of that sin save Umar and if the great chastisement would come down, no one would be safe from it except Umar!

Had told lies he who had pretended that the Prophet (s) had kept the prisoners and taken ransom from them before he (had fought and triumphed in the land). The Prophet (s) did that after he had fought and killed the heroes and tyrants of Quraysh like Abu Jahl bin Hisham, Utba, Shayba bin Abu Rabee’a, al-Waleed bin Utba, al-Aass bin Sa’eed, al-Aswad bin Abdul Asad al-Makhzoomi, Umayya bin Khalaf, Zam’a bin al-Asad, Aqeel bin al-Aswad, Nabeeh, Munabbih, Abul Bukhturi, Handhala bin Abu Sufyan, Tu’ayma bin Adiy bin Nawfal, Nawfal bin Khuwaylid, al-Harith bin Zam’a, an-Nadhr bin al-Harith bin Abd ad-Dar, Umayr bin Othman at-Tameemi, Othman


[1] As-Seera an-Nabawiyya by ad-Dahlani, vol.1 p.512, other traditions having somehow the same meaning mentioned in as-Seera by al-Halabi and al-Bidayeh wen-Nihayeh quoted from Ahmad bin Hanbal, Muslim, Abu Dawood and at-Tarmithi all narrated from Umar bin al-Khattab.

 

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and Malik, the brothers of Talha, Mass’ood bin Umayya bin al-Mugheera, Qayss bin al-Faqih bin al-Mugheera, Huthayfa bin Abu Huthayfa bin al-Mugheera, Abu Qayss bin al-Waleed bin al-Mugheera, Amr bin Makhzoom, Abul Munthir bin Abu Rifa’a, Hajib bin as-Sa’ib bin Uwaymir, Ouss bin al-Mugheera bin Louthan, Zayd bin Malees, Aasim bin Abu Ouff, Sa’eed bin Wahab, Mo’awiya bin Abdul Qayss, Abdullah bin Jameel bin Zuhayr bin al-Harith bin Asad, as-Sa’ib bin Malik, Abul Hakam bin al-Ahnass, Hisham bin Umayya bin al-Mugheera…to the seventy heads of disbelief and the chiefs of polytheism. After all that how could the Prophet (s) have taken ransom before fighting? Would that they had minds! How did they dare to blame the Prophet (s) after his victories, O you Muslims?! Allah forbid! The Prophet (s) is too far above all what they have raved!

The fact was that the verse had been revealed to scold those who wanted to obtain the caravans and to capture their keepers as Allah had said about the event: “And when Allah promised you one of the two parties that it shall be yours and you loved that the one not armed should be yours and Allah desired to manifest the truth of what was true by His words and to cut off the root of the unbelievers. Qur'an, 8:7”

The Prophet (s) had consulted with his companions and said to them: “The people (the polytheists) have set out on their camels. Are camels more beloved to you or fighting?” They said: “Camels are more beloved to us than meeting the enemy.” One of them said to the Prophet (s) when he saw him insisting on fighting: “You have better told us about fighting so that we could get ready for it. We have come to obtain the camels and not to fight.” The Prophet (s) became too angry.[1] Then Allah revealed: “Even as your Lord caused you to go forth from your house with the truth, though a party of the believers were surely averse. They disputed with you about the truth after it had become clear, (and they went forth) as if they were being driven to death while they saw (it). Qur'an, 8:5-6”

Then Allah wanted to convince them by justifying the situation of the Prophet (s) in his insisting on fighting and in his indifference to the


[1] Al-Halabi’s Seera, ad-Dahlani’s Seera and other books of history.

 

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camels and their keepers when He said: “It is not fit for a prophet” (from among the prophets who had come before your Prophet Muhammad) “that he should take captives unless he has fought and triumphed in the land” so your prophet would have no captives “unless he has fought and triumphed in the land” like the other previous prophets before him. But you wanted, by taking the camels and capturing their keepers, to obtain the pleasures of this life but Allah wanted the hereafter by doing away with His enemies and Allah is (Mighty, Wise). Might and wisdom at those days required to do away with the power of the enemies and to put out their flame. Then Allah said scolding them: (Were it not for an ordinance from Allah that had already gone forth) to prevent them from taking the camels and capturing their keepers, they would have captured the people and taken their camels. If they had done so (surely there would have befallen you a great chastisement for what you had taken to) before fighting in the land!

This is the meaning of the verse and it cannot be interpreted into other than this meaning. I do not know that there is someone preceding me in this interpretation when I have mentioned this verse and explained it in my book al-Fusool al-Muhimma (the important chapters).[1]

49. Prisoners of Hunayn

When Allah made His messenger defeat the tribe of Hawazin in Hunayn and granted him with that great victory, the caller of the Prophet (s) announced: “No prisoner is to be killed!” Umar bin al-Khattab passed by a tied captive called Ibn al-Akwa’ who had been sent before by the tribe of Huthayl to Mecca as a spy on the Prophet (s) to convey the news of the Prophet (s) and his companions. When Umar saw him, he said: “This is the enemy of Allah. He had been spying on us. He is a captive here. Kill him!” One of the Ansar beheaded him. When the Prophet (s) was informed of that, he scolded them for doing that and said: “Have I not ordered you not to kill any captive?”[2]


[1] Chap.8.
[2] Sheikh al-Mufeed’s Irshad, chap. the battle of Hunayn.

 

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After killing this one, they killed Jameel bin Ma’mar bin Zuhayr. The Prophet (s) sent for the Ansar while he was very angry. He said to them: “Why did you kill him whereas my messenger has come to you ordering you not to kill any prisoner?” They apologized and said that Umar had ordered them to kill the prisoner. The Prophet (s) became angry and deserted them (Umar) until Umayr bin Wahab interceded with him (for Umar) and then he forgave them.[1]

Among those, who had been killed in Hunayn, was a woman from Hawazin. She was killed by Khalid bin al-Waleed. The Prophet (s) became very angry when he passed by her body, around which many people had gathered. The Prophet (s) said to one of his companions: “Follow after Khalid and said to him that the Prophet (s) orders you not to kill women, children or employees.” It has been narrated by ibn Isshaq.

Ahmad bin Hanbal said: “Abu Aamir bin Abdul Melik narrated from al-Mugheera bin Abdurrahman from Abu az-Zinad from al-Muraqqi’ bin Sayfi that his grandfather Rabah bin Rabee’ had told him that once the Prophet (s) had come back from one of his battles where Khalid bin al-Waleed was the leader of the army. Rabah and the companions of the Prophet (s) passed by a killed woman, who had been killed by of the front of the army. They stopped looking at her astonishingly. When the Prophet (s) arrived, they spread out. The Prophet (s) stopped, looked at her and said: “She would not have fought!” He said to one of his companions: “Follow after Khalid and say to him not to kill a woman or an employee.”[2] It has also been mentioned by ibn Dawood, an-Nassa’iy and ibn Maja from al-Muraqqi’ bin Sayfi.

50. The fleers from jihad

Allah has prohibited fleeing from jihad at all by this verse: “O you who believe! when you meet those who disbelieve marching for war, then turn not your backs to them. And whoever shall turn his back to them on that day, unless he turn aside for the sake of fighting or withdraws to a company, then he, indeed, becomes deserving of


[1] Sheikh al-Mufeed’s Irshad, chap. the battle of Hunayn.
[2] Al-Bidayeh wen-Nihayeh by ibn Katheer, chap. The battle of Hunayn.

 

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Allah's wrath, and his abode is hell; and an evil destination shall it be. Qur'an, 8:15-16”

It is a clear and absolute text in a clear verse of the holy Qur'an. But some of the companions have interpreted it according to their own opinions preferring the benefits to obeying the holy texts. In fact they have violated this clear text in many occasions.

One of those occasions was on the day of Uhud. Ibn Qam’a attacked Mus’ab bin Umayr (may Allah be pleased with him) and killed him thinking that he was the Prophet (s). He returned to Quraysh telling them that he had killed Muhammad. The polytheists began bringing good news to each other. They said: “Muhammad was killed! Muhammad was killed! Ibn Qam’a killed him.” The Muslims were frightened and they fled unknowing what to do as Allah has said expressing their state: “When you ran off precipitately and did not wait for any one, and the Messenger was calling you from your rear, so He gave you another sorrow instead of (your) sorrow. Qur'an, 3:153”

The Prophet (s) was calling upon them: “O slaves of Allah, come to me! O slaves of Allah, come to me! I am the messenger of Allah. He, who attacks the enemy, will be in Paradise!” He was calling upon them while he was at the rear but they did not turn to any one at all (while fleeing).

Ibn Jareer and Ibnul Atheer mentioned in their Tareekh: “The defeat of the fleeing group of the Muslims, among whom was Othman bin Affan and others, took them to al-A’was. They stayed there for three days and then they came back to the Prophet (s) who said to them when he saw them: “You have gone where you liked!”[1]

Ibn Jareer and Ibnul Atheer also mentioned that Anass bin an-Nadhr, who was the uncle of Anass bin Malik, met Umar, Talha and some of the Muhajireen, who had put their weapons aside and given up fighting. He asked them: “Why have you given up fighting?” They said: “The Prophet (s) has been killed”. He said to them: “Then what do you do with life after him? Die for what the Prophet (s) has died for!” Then he attacked the polytheists and fought them until he was


[1] These details have been mentioned by all the historians who have talked about the Battle of Uhud.

 

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killed. Seventy stabs and strokes were found in his body and no one could know him save his sister.

They mentioned that Anass bin an-Nadhr had heard some of the Muslims, among whom were Umar and Talha, saying when they heard that the Prophet (s) had been killed: “Would that Abdullah bin Abu Salool come to take safeguard for us from Abu Sufyan before they kill us!” Anass said to them: “O people, if Muhammad has been killed, the Lord of Muhammad has not been killed. Fight for what Muhammad has fought for! O Allah, I apologize to You for what these people say and acquit myself from what they do!” Then he fought until he was martyred.[1] Blessings of Allah be upon him.

And another one of those occasions was “on the day of Hunayn, when your great numbers made you vain, but they availed you nothing and the earth became strait to you notwithstanding its spaciousness, then you turned back retreating. Then Allah sent down His tranquility upon His Messenger and upon the believers. Qur'an, 9:25-26” who kept to the Prophet (s) when his companions fled; the companions among whom was Umar as al-Bukhari said in his Sahih[2] when mentioning a tradition that Abu Qatada al-Ansari had said: “…on the day of Hunayn the Muslims fled away and I fled with them. I saw Umar among the fleers. I said to him: “What is the matter with the people?” He said: “It is an affair of Allah…”

And another occasion; when the Prophet (s) marched to conquer Khaybar, he sent Abu Bakr at the head of the army. He was defeated and came back.[3]

Imam Ali (s) said: “The Prophet (s) marched to conquer Khaybar. He sent Umar at the head of the companions (the army). He and his companions were defeated and came back; one cowarding the other…”[4]


[1] This story has been mentioned by the historians who have detailed the events of the battle of Uhud.
[2] Vol.3 p.46. Al-Bidayeh wen-Nihayeh by ibn Katheer, vol.4 p.329 from al-Bukhari, Muslim and others.
[3] Mustadrak of al-Hakim, vol.3 p.37, Talkhees al-Mustadrak by ath-Thahabi.
[4] Mustadrak of al-Hakim, Talkhees al-Mustadrak of ath-Thahabi.

 

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Al-Hakim mentioned in his Mustadrak[1] that Jabir bin Abdullah had said: “The messenger of Allah said: “Tomorrow I will send a man, who loves Allah and His messenger and they love him. He will not turn his back (to the enemy). Allah will grant him victory.” The men looked forward to it. Ali was sore-eyed on that day. The Prophet (s) asked him to set out with the army. Ali said: “O messenger of Allah, I can see nothing.” The Prophet (s) spit in Ali’s eyes and gave him the banner. Ali asked: “O messenger of Allah, what shall I fight them for?” the Prophet (s) said: “To witness that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is the messenger of Allah. If they do, they will spare their bloods and monies and their reward will be with Allah.” He fought them (the people of Khaybar) and defeated them.”

Al-Hakim, after mentioning this tradition, said: “Al-Bukhari and Muslim have agreed on the tradition (of the banner) but they did not mention it in this way.” So has been said by ath-Thahabi in his Talkhees after mentioning the tradition.

Iyass bin Salama narrated that his father had said: “We have fought with the Prophet (s) in Khaybar when he spit in Ali’s eyes and they recovered and then the Prophet (s) gave him the banner. Marhab came out to Ali reciting:

“Khaybar has known that I am Marhab,

Expert hero with sharp weapons

When wars come flaming.”

Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) came out to him reciting:

“It is me, whom my mother has called me Haydara,

like a lion of forest with bad look.

I kill (many of) you with the sword.”

Ali struck Marhab and split his head and then the victory came.”[2]

And another occasion during the battle of as-Silsila in the valley of ar-Raml (sand); it was like the battle of Khaybar. First the Prophet (s) sent Abu Bakr and then he came back defeated with his army.


[1] Vol.3 p.38.
[2] Mustadrak of al-Hakim, who said it was a true tradition according to the conditions of al-Bukhari and Muslim. So was said by ath-Thahabi in his Talkhees.

 

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Then the Prophet (s) sent Umar who came back with defeat too. After that the Prophet (s) sent Imam Ali (s) who came back with victory, booties and captives.[1]

The battle of as-Silsila is other than the battle of Thaat as-Salasil, which was in the seventh year of hijra under the leadership of Amr bin al-Aass. Abu Bakr, Umar and Abu Ubayda were among the army on that day according to all of the historians.

There were some problems between Umar and Amr bin al-Aass as al-Hakim has mentioned in his Mustadrak.[2] Abdullah bin Burayda narrated that his father had said: “The Prophet (s) had sent Amr bin al-Aass to the battle of Thaat as-Salasil as the leader of the army, in which Abu Bakr and Umar were as soldiers. When they arrived at the place of the battle, Amr ordered his army not to light any fire. Umar bin al-Khattab became angry and tried to attack Amr but Abu Bakr forbade him from doing that and said to him that the Prophet (s) had appointed Amr as the leader because he knew that he was expert in the affairs of the wars and then Umar became quiet.”

Al-Hakim said, after mentioning this tradition, that it was true and ath-Thahabi said the same after mentioning the tradition in his Talkhees.

Note

The Prophet (s) had wise ways in announcing the virtues of Imam Ali (s) and in preferring him to the rest of the companions. The researchers knew that well.

Among these ways was that the Prophet (s) had never appointed any one as a leader over Imam Ali (s) neither in war nor in peace whereas the other companions had been under the leadership of others.[3] The


[1] Refer to al-Irshad by Sheikh al-Mufeed for more details.
[2] Vol.3 p.43.
[3] Once al-Hasan al-Basri was asked about Imam Ali (s) and he said: “What shall I say about one, who has obtained the four aspects; being entrusted with the sura of Bara’a, what the Prophet (s) has said about him in the battle of Tabook… if he missed any thing of virtues other than prophethood, the Prophet (s) would exclude him, the saying of the Prophet (s): …the two weighty things; the Book of Allah and my family and that no emir has ever been appointed over him at all whereas the emirs have

 

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Prophet (s) had appointed Amr bin al-Aass as the emir over Abu Bakr and Umar in the battle of Thaat as-Salasil. When the Prophet (s) left to the better world, Ussama bin Zayd, although he was too young, was the emir over the heads of the Muhajireen and the Ansar like Abu Bakr, Umar, Abu Ubayda and their likes.

When the Prophet (s) appointed Imam Ali (s) as a leader of an army, he joined to his army famous personalities but when he appointed other than him, he excluded him from those armies and kept him to be with him.[1]

When the Prophet (s) sent two brigades; one under the leadership of Imam Ali (s) and the other under the leadership of another one, he ordered them that when the two brigades gathered together, both would be under the leadership of Imam Ali (s) and when they separated again, each one would lead his brigade.[2]

The Prophet (s), more than one time, had sent other than Imam Ali (s) on the armies but they came back unsuccessfully and then the Prophet (s) sent Imam Ali (s) to obtain great victories[3] and in this


commanded other (companions) than him…” Refer to Sharh Nahjol Balagha, vol. 1 p.369.
[1] As he had done in the battle of Khaybar when he appointed Abu Bakr and then Umar as the leaders but he was not under their leaderships but when he appointed Imam Ali (s) as the leader, they both were under his leadership. Praise be to Allah for all of that!
[2] Ahmad bin Hanbal mentioned in his Musnad, vol.5 p.356 that Burayda had said: “The Prophet (s) had sent two armies to Yemen; one of them was under the leadership of Ali bin Abu Talib and the other was under the leadership of Khalid bin al-Waleed. He said to them: “If you meet together, Ali will be the leader of the two armies and if you separate, each one of you will lead his army.” We met the tribe of Zubayda and we fought each other. The Muslims defeated the polytheists. We killed the warriors and captured the women. Ali chose a woman from among the captives to himself. Khalid sent a letter with me to the Prophet (s) telling him about that. When I came to the Prophet (s), I gave him the book. It was read to him. The sign of anger seemed on the face of the Prophet (s). I said: “O messenger of Allah, you have sent me with a man and ordered me to obey him and I did as I was ordered.” The Prophet (s) said: “Do not involve yourself with Ali in any problem! He is from me and I am from him and he is your guardian after me.” This tradition has been mentioned by other scholars of Hadith. Refer to our book al-Muraja’at, no.36.
[3] As in the battle of Khaybar and the battle of Thaat as-Salasil mentioned above.

 

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way the virtue of Imam Ali (s) appeared better than if the Prophet (s) would have sent him from the first.

The Prophet (s) might have sent other than Imam Ali (s) in a task, to which the necks stretched, and then Allah revealed to the Prophet (s) that: “No one is to carry out your tasks save you or a man from you” meaning Imam Ali (s) as it was with the matter of the sura of Bara’a and breaking the covenants of the polytheists on the day of the great hajj.[1]

51. The Prophet (s) orders his companions not to answer Abu Sufyan in Uhud

On the day of Uhud, the Prophet (s) and his companions stopped at the bank of the valley and they let the mountain behind them. The polytheists were three thousand and seven hundred armored warriors and two hundred knights. There were fifteen women with them. The Muslims were two hundred armored fighters and two knights.

The two armies got ready to fight. The Prophet (s) (and his companions) turned his face to Medina and left the mountain of Uhud behind him. He made the archers, who were fifty men, behind him and appointed Abdullah bin Jubayr as their emir and said to him: “Keep the knights away from us by the arrows. Do not let them attack us from behind. Keep on your places whether we win or lose for we will not be attacked except from this defile (shi’b); the defile of Uhud.”

Talha bin Othman, the bearer of the polytheists’ banner, came out calling: “O companions of Muhammad, you claim that Allah will hasten us to Hell by your swords and He will hasten you to Paradise by our swords. Let some one of you, who wants to hasten me to Hell by his sword and to be hastened to Paradise by my sword, advance!”

Ibnul Atheer said in al-Kamil: “…Ali bin Abu Talib came out to him and struck him and his leg was cut. He fell to the ground and his private parts appeared. He begged Ali and Ali left him alone. He


[1] We have written a good research on this subject in our book Abu Hurayra. Please refer to p.157-188, tradition no.18.

 

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weltered in his blood until he died. The Prophet (s) said: “Allahu akbar-Allah is great. The (ram) of the battalion!” The Muslims began crying: “Allahu akbar” after the Prophet (s). The Prophet (s) said to Ali: “What prevented you from finishing him off?” Ali said: “He begged me by Allah and kinship. I felt shy to kill him after that.”

After that Imam Ali (s) withstood. He killed the bearers of the banner one after the other. Ibnul Atheer and other historians said: “The Muslims killed the bearers of the banner and it remained thrown on the ground; no one approached it. Then Amra bint Alqama al-Harithiyya took the banner and raised it and then Quraysh gathered around the banner. Then a slave of bani Abd ad-Dar, who was very strong, took the banner and he also was killed. He, who had killed the bearers of the banner, was Ali bin Abu Talib. Abu Rafi’ said that.”

People fought severely. Hamza, Ali, Abu Dijana and some of the Muslims had done well in the fight. Allah granted them victory and the polytheists were defeated. The women of the polytheists fled to the mountain. The Muslims entered the camp of the polytheists to rob their properties. When the archers saw their fellows robbing, they left their places in the defile and hastened to rob too forgetting what the Prophet (s) had ordered them of.

When Khalid bin al-Waleed, who was with the polytheists on that day, saw that the archers in the defile were a few, he killed them and attacked the Prophet’s companions from the rear. The fled polytheists came back again with activity and fought the Muslims and defeated them after killing seventy of Muslim heroes, among whom was Hamza bin Abdul Muttalib, the lion of Allah and of His messenger. On that day the Prophet (s) fought severely until all his arrows finished. His bow was broken and he was injured in his cheek and his front. One of his teeth was broken and his lip was cut. Ibn Qam’a attacked him with his sword and was about to kill him.

Imam Ali (s) and five men of the Ansar, who were martyred then, fought before the Prophet (s) and defended him. Abu Dijana made himself as armor for the Prophet (s). The arrows stuck into the back of Abu Dijana while he was covering the Prophet (s) with his body. Mus’ab bin Umayr fought bravely and then he was martyred. He was


 

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killed by Abu Qam’a, who thought that he had killed the Prophet (s). He went back to Quraysh saying: “Muhammad is killed.” The people began crying: “Muhammad is killed! Muhammad is killed!” The Muslims fled aimlessly. The first one, who recognized the Prophet (s), was Ka’b bin Malik. He shouted at the top of his voice: “O Muslims, this is the messenger of Allah. He is alive. He is not killed.” The Prophet (s) asked him to keep silent.[1]

Then Imam Ali (s) and his companions took the Prophet (s) to the defile, in which he protected himself. Imam Ali (s) and his companions surrounded the Prophet (s) defending him.

Ibn Jareer and Ibnul Atheer in their Tareekhs and other historians said: “…the Prophet (s), while he was in the defile, saw some polytheists. He said to Ali: “Attack them!” Ali attacked them, killed some of them and scattered the others. The Prophet (s) saw another group of the polytheists. He said to Ali: “Do away with them!” Ali attacked them, killed some of them and scattered the others. Gabriel said: “O messenger of Allah, this is the assistance!” The Prophet (s) said: “He (Ali) is from me and I am from him.” Gabriel said: “And I am from you both.” Then a voice was heard saying: “No sword save Thul Faqar[2] and no youth save Ali!”

Imam Ali (s) began bringing water with his leather shield to wash the Prophet’s wounds but the bleeding did not stop.[3]

Hind (Abu Sufyan’s wife) and her fellow women went to the martyrs of the Muslims and began mutilating their bodies. They made from the ears, the noses and the fingers of the martyrs necklaces and rings. She had given Wahshi her rings and necklaces for his killing Hamza. Hind cut open the chest of Hamza and took out his liver. She chewed it but she found it unpleasant and then she emitted it.

Then Abu Sufyan came near to the Muslims and said: “Is Muhammad among you?” He repeated that three times. The Prophet (s) said to


[1] That the enemy might hear him and might attack the Prophet (s) again.
[2] Thul Faqar was the name of the famous sword of Imam Ali (s).
[3] After that Fatima (s) burnt a piece of a straw mat and put some of the ash on the wound and then the bleeding stopped. She had attended the event. She embraced her father while he was wounded and she was crying.